This name is a synonym of Rhaponticum uniflorum (L.) DC..
The record derives from Tropicos
(data supplied on 2012-04-18)
which reports it as a synonym (record 2702180) with original publication details: Reise 1: 231 1775.
This name record (from Tropicos) was not included in version 1 of The Plant List. It is possible the same name was included from a different data source, to check this you can search for Centaurea monanthos in version 1 of The Plant List.