This name is a synonym of Eurybia divaricata (L.) G.L.Nesom.
The record derives from TICA
(data supplied on 2012-02-11)
which reports it as a synonym (record FF19ADF5-2B9F-4810-99E5-D1F860CFCF09) with original publication details: 1898.
This name record (from TICA) was not included in version 1 of The Plant List. It is possible the same name was included from a different data source, to check this you can search for Aster claytonii in version 1 of The Plant List.